Distance Measurement in Astronomy

Since all stars appear as points of light, even with the largest telescopes, and since geometrical distance measurement by parallax is possible only for the closest stars, an overlapping chain of distance measurement techniques has been developed. The distance indicators include:

Cepheid Variables
Planetary Nebulae
Most luminous supergiants
Most luminous globular clusters
Most luminous H II regions
Hubble constant and red shifts

Distance units
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