Solenoid

A long straight coil of wire can be used to generate a nearly uniform magnetic field similar to that of a bar magnet. Such coils, called solenoids, have an enormousnumber of practical applications. The field canbe greatly strengthenedby the addition ofan iron core.Such cores aretypical inelectromagnets.

Derive field expressionCalculate fieldField of current loop
The solenoid as an inductor
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Magnetic field concepts

Currents as magnetic sources
 
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Solenoid Field from Ampere's Law

Taking a rectangular path about which to evaluate Ampere's Law such that the length of the side parallel to the solenoid field is L gives a contribution BL inside the coil.The field is essentially perpendicular tothe sides of thepath, giving negligible contribution. If theend is taken so far from the coil that thefield is negligible, thenthe length inside the coilis the dominant contribution.

This admittedly idealized case for Ampere's Law gives

This turns out to be a good approximation for the solenoid field, particularly in the case of an iron core solenoid.

Solenoid discussionCalculate field
Index

Magnetic field concepts

Currents as magnetic sources
 
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Solenoid Magnetic Field Calculation

At the center of a long solenoid

Active formula: click on the quantity you wish to calculate.


Magnetic field = permeability x turn density x current

For a solenoid of length L = m with N = turns,
the turn density is n=N/L= turns/m.

If the current in the solenoid is I = amperes

and the relative permeability of the core is k = ,

then the magnetic field at the center of the solenoid is

B = Tesla = gauss.

The Earth's magnetic field is about half a gauss.

The relative permeability of magnetic iron is around 200.

Enter data, then click on the quantity you wish to calculate in the active formula above the data entry points. Default values will be entered for unspecified parameters, but the numbers will not be forced to be consistent until you click on the quantity to calculate.

Solenoid discussionDerive field expressionRelative permeability
Index

Magnetic field concepts

Currents as magnetic sources
 
HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
Go Back