Hysteresis

When a ferromagnetic material is magnetized in one direction, it will not relax back to zero magnetization when the imposed magnetizing field is removed. It must be driven back to zero by a field in the opposite direction. If an alternating magnetic field is applied to the material, its magnetization will trace out a loop called a hysteresis loop. The lack of retraceability of the magnetization curve is the property called hysteresis and it is related to the existence of magnetic domains in the material. Once the magnetic domains are reoriented, it takes some energy to turn them back again. This property of ferrromagnetic materials is useful as a magnetic "memory". Some compositions of ferromagnetic materials will retain an imposed magnetization indefinitely and are useful as "permanent magnets". The magnetic memory aspects of iron and chromium oxides make them useful in audio tape recording and for the magnetic storage of data on computer disks.

Index
 
HyperPhysics***** Condensed Matter ***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
Go Back





Hysteresis Loop


It is customary to plot the magnetization M of the sample as a function of the magnetic field strength H, since H is a measure of the externally applied field which drives the magnetization .

Further discussion of concept
Hysteresis in magnetic recording
Variations in hysteresis curves
Coercivity and remanence
Index

Reference
Young
Sec 29-8
 
HyperPhysics***** Condensed Matter ***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
Go Back





Hysteresis in Magnetic Recording

Because of hysteresis, an input signalat the level indicated by the dashed line could give a magnetization anywhere between C and D, depending upon the immediate previous history of the tape (i.e., the signal which preceded it). This clearly unacceptable situation is remedied by the bias signal which cycles the oxide grains around their hysteresis loops so quickly that the magnetization averages to zero when no signal is applied. The result of the bias signal is like a magnetic eddy which settles down to zero if there is no signal superimposed upon it. If there is a signal, it offsets the bias signal so that it leaves a remnantmagnetization proportional to thesignal offset.


Magnetic Recording
Index
 
HyperPhysics***** Condensed Matter ***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
Go Back










Variations in Hysteresis Curves

There is considerable variation in the hysteresis of different magnetic materials.


Index

Reference
Young
Sec 29-8
 
HyperPhysics***** Condensed Matter ***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
Go Back